I. Canine (Dog) Vaccination Guidelines
Canine Core Vaccine
Canine Parvovirus, Distemper Virus, and Adenovirus-2 Vaccines
For initial puppy vaccination (< 16 weeks), one dose of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) CPV, CDV, and CAV-2 is recommended every 2-3 weeks from 6-8 weeks of age, with the final booster being given no sooner than 15-16 weeks of age. For dogs older than 16 weeks of age, two doses of vaccine containing modified live virus (MLV) CPV, CDV, and CAV-2 given 2-3 weeks apart are recommended. Vaccination is recommended every 1 year per manufacture guidelines. However, there are vaccine products labeled for 3 year administration.
Canine Rabies Virus Vaccines
In accordance with California state law, we recommend that puppies receive a single dose of killed rabies vaccine at 3-4 months of age. Adult dogs with unknown vaccination history should also receive a single dose of killed rabies vaccine. A booster is required one year later, and thereafter, rabies vaccination should be performed every 3 years using a vaccine approved for 3-year administration.
Canine Leptospira Vaccines
Multiple leptospiral serovars are capable of causing disease in dogs, and minimal cross-protection is induced by each serovar. Currently available vaccines do not contain all serovars, and duration of immunity is probably about 1 year. However, leptospirosis disease have been found in northern California dogs both from backyards, parks, livestock, ranches, and areas frequented by wild mammals. In addition, the disease can be fatal or have high morbidity, and also has zoonotic potential. The initial vaccination should be followed by a booster 2-4 weeks later, and the first vaccine be given no earlier than 10-11 weeks of age. In general, Leptospira vaccines have been associated with more postvaccinal reactions (acute anaphylaxis) than other vaccines. The recent introduction of vaccines with reduced amounts of foreign protein has reduced this problem.
Agents associated with ‘kennel cough’ or canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) in dogs. We recommend starting vaccines after 10 weeks of age and follow up in 2-3 weeks after the initial vaccine. Our practice requires that this vaccine be given every 12 months for our facility. Ideally, the vaccine should be administered at least 24-48s hours prior to the anticipated boarding date for maximum effect, but can be administered at timeadmission. Some kennels require immunization every 6 months, annual booster vaccination with B. bronchiseptica vaccines is considered adequate for protection.
Canine Non-Core Vaccines
Non-core vaccines are optional vaccines that should be considered in light of the exposure risk of the animal, ie. based on geographic distribution and the lifestyle of the pet. Several of the diseases involved are often self-limiting or respond readily to treatment.
Canine Influenza Virus (CIV) H3N8/H3N2
Canine influenza virus H3N8 emerged in the United States in greyhounds in Florida in 2003. The virus causes upper respiratory signs including a cough, nasal discharge, and a low-grade fever followed by recovery. A small percentage of dogs develop more severe signs in association with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Canine influenza virus H3N2 emerged in 2015 in Illinois and has spread to several other states, including California. Several affected dogs have recently (January 2018) been identified in Northern California. As a practice we are taking a close look at further outbreaks. At this time CIV is not a requirement to board at our facility but many other facilities is a requirement.
Canine Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) Vaccine
The incidence of Lyme disease in California is currently considered low. Lyme disease is associated in the east coast and Midwest regions. Travel to endemic areas (i.e. the East Coast) is anticipated, vaccination could be considered, followed by boosters at intervals in line with risk of exposure. There have been more recent cases in the coastal ranges and Napa region.
More to come for our feline friends.